EJB lite, JPA, DataSource embedded in java application

This post demonstrates how to put EJB lite, JPA, DataSource together in a standalone java application, using standard JavaEE 6 API in GlassFish. The application source consists of 4 files: persistence.xml, JPA entity, no-interface EJB, and main class.

Transaction is managed by embeddable EJB container. The persistence unit is backed by an application-scoped JTA DataSource declared with annotation on EJB class. No need to package or deploy anything. Client and server pieces are all in a single JVM.

classes/META-INF/persistence.xml :

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<persistence version="2.0" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_2_0.xsd">
<persistence-unit name="test_pu" transaction-type="JTA">
<property name="eclipselink.ddl-generation" value="create-tables"/>
<property name="eclipselink.logging.level" value="FINE"/>
JPA entity Employee:
package test;
import javax.persistence.*;

public class Employee implements java.io.Serializable {
private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

@Id @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
private Long id;

@Basic private String name;

public Long getId() {
return id;

public void setId(Long id) {
this.id = id;

public String getName() {
return name;

public void setName(String name) {
this.name = name;

@Override public int hashCode() {
int hash = 0;
hash += (id != null ? id.hashCode() : 0);
return hash;

@Override public boolean equals(Object object) {
// TODO: Warning - this method won't work in the case the id fields are not set
if (!(object instanceof Employee)) {
return false;
Employee other = (Employee) object;
if ((this.id == null && other.id != null) || (this.id != null && !this.id.equals(other.id))) {
return false;
return true;

@Override public String toString() {
return "Employee id=" + id + ", name=" + name;
No-interface stateless EJB:
package test;
import javax.ejb.Stateless;
import javax.persistence.*;
import javax.annotation.sql.DataSourceDefinition;

portNumber=3306 )
public class TestBean {
@PersistenceContext private EntityManager em;

public void addEmployee(String[] names) {
for(String name : names) {
Employee e = new Employee();
main class:
package test;
import javax.ejb.embeddable.EJBContainer;
import javax.naming.*;

public class Client {
public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
EJBContainer container = EJBContainer.createEJBContainer();
Context namingContext = container.getContext();
TestBean testBean = (TestBean) namingContext.lookup("java:global/classes/TestBean");
testBean.addEmployee(args); //need to pass in employee names from command line
To compile from project directory:
$ javac -cp "classes:$GLASSFISH_HOME/lib/embedded/glassfish-embedded-static-shell.jar" classes/test/*java
Start mysqld, and run the app:
cd /usr/local/mysql-5.1.32; sudo bin/mysqld_safe --user root
java -cp "classes:$GLASSFISH_HOME/lib/embedded/glassfish-embedded-static-shell.jar:$HOME/mysql-connector-java-5.1.5-bin.jar" test.Client Jon Jane
Verify entities are successfully created by running mysql:
mysql> select * from EMPLOYEE;
| ID | NAME |
| 1 | Jon |
| 2 | Jane |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
If you are wondering why the jar is named xxx-static-shell.jar, I guess "static" means it's not OSGi bundle, and "shell" means it's a wrapper for all the other GlassFish jars.


JSampo said...


thanx for this tutorial.

I just start with JEE6, so I try this tutorial.
But I got exception below.
I have installed GF3, postgresql 9.0.
And I have postgresql-9.0-801.jdbc4.jar in
And I added
name = "java:app/jdbc/testDS",
url = "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/postgres") // URL
But still doesn't work.
Any idea what is wrong?

Thanx for answer.


WARNING: RAR5038:Unexpected exception while creating resource for pool __SYSTEM/pools/__datasource_definition/./java:app/jdbc/testDS. Exception : javax.resource.spi.ResourceAllocat
ionException: The connection could not be allocated: The url cannot be null
9.5.2011 1:39:48 com.sun.enterprise.connectors.ConnectionManagerImpl internalGetConnection
WARNING: RAR5117 : Failed to obtain/create connection from connection pool [ __SYSTEM/pools/__datasource_definition/./java:app/jdbc/testDS ]. Reason : com.sun.appserv.connectors.in
ternal.api.PoolingException: The connection could not be allocated: The url cannot be null
9.5.2011 1:39:48 com.sun.gjc.spi.base.DataSource logNonTransientException
WARNING: jdbc.exc_get_conn
. . . .
Caused by: Exception [EclipseLink-4002] (Eclipse Persistence Services - 2.2.0.v20110202-r8913): org.eclipse.persistence.exceptions.DatabaseException
Internal Exception: java.sql.SQLException: Error in allocating a connection. Cause: The connection could not be allocated: The url cannot be null
Error Code: 0
at org.eclipse.persistence.exceptions.DatabaseException.sqlException(DatabaseException.java:309)
at org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.JNDIConnector.connect(JNDIConnector.java:138)
at org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.JNDIConnector.connect(JNDIConnector.java:94)
at org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.DatasourceLogin.connectToDatasource(DatasourceLogin.java:162)
at org.eclipse.persistence.internal.sessions.DatabaseSessionImpl.loginAndDetectDatasource(DatabaseSessionImpl.java:592)
at org.eclipse.persistence.internal.jpa.EntityManagerFactoryProvider.login(EntityManagerFactoryProvider.java:233)
at org.eclipse.persistence.internal.jpa.EntityManagerSetupImpl.deploy(EntityManagerSetupImpl.java:394)
... 32 more

javahowto said...

I haven't tried postgres yet. Some wild guess:

1, In @DataSourceDefinition, try adding url attribute and removing databaseName, serverName and portNumber attributes as these props are already included in url.

2, if 1 doesn't work, then try the following:



3, if 2 doesn't work, then do not define datasource inside your app by removing @DataSourceDefinition. Instead, define the data source in GlassFish admin console http://localhost:4848. You need to change its jndi name from java:app/jdbc/testDS to just testDS, or jdbc/testDS. Also update persistence.xml w/ the new name.

JSampo said...


thank You.

I tried

and it works :)

Best regards.

Anonymous said...

Has anyone tried this on JBoss AS 6.1? I tried but can't make persistence.xml use a Datasoure defined by an annotation.

javahowto said...

Using the application-scoped data-source defined with @DataSourceDefinition in persistence.xml can be tricky to implement in appserver. Not sure if this is already supported in JBoss 6.1.

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